Chemistry Lesson 1
Atomic and Molecular Structure (Grades 9-12)
Connection Among the Location in the Table, the Atomic Number, and Mass | How to Identify Metals, Semimetals, Nonmetals, and Halogens | How to Identify Alkaline Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, and Transition Metals | Lanthanide, Actinide, Transactinide, and Transuranium Elements | Ionization Energy, Electronegativity, Relative Sizes | How Many Electrons Can Bond? | Size and Mass | Location and Quantum Electron Configuration | Summary
|HOW TO IDENTIFY ALKALI METALS, ALKALINE EARTH METALS, AND TRANSITION METALS|
The elements in Group 2 are called the Alkaline Earth Metals. They have 2 electrons in their outermost shell. They have good metallic properties including conductivity, luster (shine), softness, malleability and ductility – although they are less “metallic” than the elements in Group 1.
The Alkaline Earth Metals are: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Magnesium and calcium are common in the Earth’s crust.
Now we come to a big block of metals called the transition metals (or transition elements). They are groups 3 through 12 on the Periodic Table of the Elements.
To find them, go down to Period 4; this is the 4th row. Beginning with element 21, scandium (Sc), count 10 elements across to zinc (Zn). Then go one row down and count 10 elements across from yttrium (Y) to cadmium (Cd). Then go another row down and count 10 across from lutetium (Lu) to mercury (Hg) and down one last row to count 10 elements across from lawrencium (Lr). The metals in those four rows are the transition metals. They are hard and dense and less reactive than other metals.
Three of the most important transition metals are iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni). These metals are the only elements known to maintain a magnetic field.