Reading | Writing | Written and Oral English Language Conventions | Listening and Speaking


California Content Standards

eTAP Lessons

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Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development

Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

Word Recognition

1.1 Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.  
Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.2 Apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to determine the meaning of words and phrases. Word Origins
1.3 Use knowledge of root words to determine the meaning of unknown words within a passage. Context Clues
1.4 Know common roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., international). Multiple Meanings of Words
1.5 Use a thesaurus to determine related words and concepts.  
1.6 Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings. Multiple Meanings of Words

2.0 Reading Comprehension

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).

Structural Features of Informational Materials

2.1 Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g., compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen comprehension. Structure of Informational Materials
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full comprehension, location of information, personal enjoyment).  
2.3 Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, and foreshadowing clues. Inference
2.4 Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information and ideas. Conclusions
2.5 Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or articles.  
2.6 Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in expository text.  
2.7 Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games). Multiple-Step Instructions

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis

Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature

3.1 Describe the structural differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales. Imaginative Forms of Literature
Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each event on future actions. Plot
3.3 Use knowledge of the situation and setting and of a character's traits and motivations to determine the causes for that character's actions. Setting
3.4 Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the exploits of one character type and develop theories to account for similar tales in diverse cultures (e.g., trickster tales). Character Traits
3.5 Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and identify its use in literary works. Literary Devices

Writing (top)

1.0 Writing Strategies

Students write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).

Organization and Focus

1.1 Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view based upon purpose, audience, length, and format requirements. Organization and Focus
1.2 Create multiple-paragraph compositions:
1.2.a Provide an introductory paragraph. Organization and Focus
1.2.b Establish and support a central idea with a topic sentence at or near the beginning of the first paragraph. Organization and Focus
1.2.c Include supporting paragraphs with simple facts, details, and explanations. Organization and Focus
1.2.d Conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the points. Organization and Focus
1.2.e Use correct indention. Organization and Focus
1.3 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question). Organization and Focus
Penmanship
1.4 Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italic. Penmanship
Research and Technology
1.5 Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately Research Reports
1.6 Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features (e.g., prefaces, appendixes). Structure of Informational Materials
1.7 Use various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, card catalog, encyclopedia, online information) as an aid to writing. Structure of Informational Materials
1.8 Understand the organization of almanacs, newspapers, and periodicals and how to use those print materials. Structure of Informational Materials
1.9 Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology (e.g., cursor, software, memory, disk drive, hard drive). Word-Processing
Evaluation and Revision
1.10 Edit and revise selected drafts to improve coherence and progression by adding, deleting, consolidating, and rearranging text.  

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grade four outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write narratives:
2.1.a Relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience. Narratives
2.1.b Provide a context to enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience. Narratives
2.1.c Use concrete sensory details. Narratives
2.1.d Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable. Narratives
2.2  
2.2.a Demonstrate an understanding of the literary work. Oral Responses to Literature
2.2.b Support judgments through references to both the text and prior knowledge. Oral Responses to Literature
2.3. Write information reports:
2.3.a Frame a central question about an issue or situation. Research Reports
2.3.b Include facts and details for focus. Research Reports
2.3.c Draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, other media sources). Research Reports
2.4 Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most significant details. Research Reports

Written and Oral English Language Conventions (top)

The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

Sentence Structure

1.1 Use simple and compound sentences in writing and speaking. Compound Sentences
1.2 Combine short, related sentences with appositives, participial phrases, adjectives, ad-verbs, and prepositional phrases. Compound Sentences
Grammar
1.3 Identify and use regular and irregular verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions in writing and speaking. Verbs
Prepositions
Punctuation
1.4 Use parentheses, commas in direct quotations, and apostrophes in the possessive case of nouns and in contractions. Period, Exclamation Point & Question Mark
Parentheses 
Apostrophes
1.5 Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to identify titles of documents. Underlining, Quotation Marks and Italics
Capitalization
1.6 Capitalize names of magazines, newspapers, works of art, musical compositions, organizations, and the first word in quotations when appropriate. Capitalization
Spelling
1.7 Spell correctly roots, inflections, suffixes and prefixes, and syllable constructions. Spelling

Listening and Speaking  (top)

1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies Students

listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.

Comprehension

1.1 Ask thoughtful questions and respond to relevant questions with appropriate elaboration in oral settings. Questioning
1.2 Summarize major ideas and supporting evidence presented in spoken messages and formal presentations. Verbal and Nonverbal Messages
1.3 Identify how language usages (e.g., sayings, expressions) reflect regions and cultures. Tone, Mood, and Emotion
1.4 Give precise directions and instructions. Multiple-Step Instructions
Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
1.5 Present effective introductions and conclusions that guide and inform the listener's understanding of important ideas and evidence. Clarify Spoken Ideas
1.6 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question). Tone, Mood, and Emotion 
Verbal Cues, Facial Expressions & Gestures
1.7 Emphasize points in ways that help the listener or viewer to follow important ideas and concepts. Clarify Spoken Ideas
1.8 Use details, examples, anecdotes, or experiences to explain or clarify information. Clarify Spoken Ideas
1.9 Use volume, pitch, phrasing, pace, modulation, and gestures appropriately to enhance meaning. Verbal Cues, Facial Expressions & Gestures
Analysis and Evaluation of Oral Media Communication
1.10 Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention on events and in forming opinions on issues. Media

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grade four outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Make narrative presentations:
2.1.a Relate ideas, observations, or recollections about an event or experience. Narrative Presentations
2.1.b Provide a context that enables the listener to imagine the circumstances of the event or experience. Narrative Presentations
2.1.c Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable. Narrative Presentations
2.2 Make informational presentations:
2.2.a Frame a key question. Informative Presentations
2.2.b Include facts and details that help listeners to focus. Informative Presentations
2.2.c Incorporate more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, television or radio reports). Informative Presentations
2.3 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details. Oral Responses to Literature
2.4 Recite brief poems (i.e. two or three stanzas), soliloquies, or dramatic dialogues, using clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing. Persuasive Presentations