Standardized Test Preparation

New York Regents

Note: The requirements for this exam include topics also covered by the 9th grade Earth Science exam. Those tables are noted in the table below.

Biology - Grade 10

Assessment Exam - NY Regents Biology
Structure and Function eTAP Lesson
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.
Cell Membrane


Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
RNA's Role

The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
The Nervous System

Energy Capture and Storage

The Roles of the Sensory Neurons, Interneurons, and Motor Neurons
Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems eTAP Lesson
Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
Energy Pyramid

Cellular and Molecular Basis of Muscle Contraction
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus to form amino acids and other carbon-based molecules.
Water, Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle

Protein Differences
Use a model to illustrate that aerobic cellular respirationis a chemical process where by the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.

Selection and Diversity

Endocrine System
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in ecosystems.

Digestive System

Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.
Digestive Enzymes

Kidney's Role
Develop a model to illustrate the role of various processes in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
Relative Residence Time of Carbon

Respiratory System
Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems eTAP Lesson
Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of biotic and abiotic factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales.

Ecosystem Changes
Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales.
Fluctuation in Population Size

Stability in an Ecosystem
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.
Accommodation and Adaptation

New Mutations
Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity
Selection and Diversity

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.
The Differences Between Bacteria and Viruses
Inheritance and Variation of Traits eTAP Lesson
Use a model to illustrate cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation.

Skin's Role
Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
Protein Synthesis

Structure and Function of DNA, RNA
Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from:(1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, (3) mutations caused by environmental factors and/or (4) genetic engineering.

Random Chromosome Segregation

Antibodies, Vaccination

The Problems of a Compromised Immune System

Phagocytes, B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.
Base Pairing Rules
Use models to illustrate how human reproduction and development maintains continuity of life.
Genetic Engineering

DNA Technology and Recombinant DNA

Adding DNA to Bacterial Genetic Material
Natural Selection and Evolution eTAP Lesson
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.
Evidence of Evolution

Branching Diagrams
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors:(1) the potential for a species to increase in number,(2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexualr eproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.
Lethal Homozygous Alleles and Their Roles

Great Diversity-Increased Chance to Survive
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.
When Did the Different Organisms Start to Develop Differently?
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.
Reproductive and Geographic Isolation
Evaluate the evidence supportingc laims that changes in environmental conditions may result in:(1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.
Effects of Genetic Drifts

Fossil Analysis

Branching Diagram (Cladogram)

Earth Science - Grade 9

Engineering Design eTAP Lesson
Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.
Principal Natural Hazards
Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.
Tools and Technology

Balanced Forces


Two Dimensional Trajectory Problems

Two Dimensional Vectors
Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
Water Supply

Solving Constant Speed and Average Speed Problems
Use a computer simulation to model the impactof proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.
Computer Models to Study Greenhouse Effect

Heat Flow and Work