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Nuclear Forces

The electrons in an atom orchestrate chemical reactions, and the atomic nuclei direct nuclear reactions.


Electrons are fundamental atomic parts, which have been described as waves and as particles.

Electrons carry a charge of –1 and they participate in electromagnetic interactions.

Electrons (e-) are very, very small; they have a mass of 9.11×10−34 g. In spite of their extremely small size, electrons account for the vast majority of the atom's volume.


The atomic bucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. Together, these particles are called nucleons.