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What is Density?

Hematite is a naturally occurring mineral that has a reddish gray color. It is a type of iron ore. A geologist takes small sample of hematite and ties a thread to it and carefully dips it into a graduated cylinder containing 10 mL of water. When it is completely submerged, the volume of water has risen to 21 mL.

We can conclude that the sample has a volume of 11 mL or 11 cm. When the same sample is dried off and put on a balance, its mass is found to be 22 grams.

The density of hematite is the ratio of its mass to its volume.